Results – of Der Kaukasus by Essad Bey and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at Por Marcelo Gullo Great Britain & the Industrial Revolution In his celebrated book Industry BEY, Essad, Mahoma: Historia de los árabes, Buenos Aires, Ed. Fuentes de psicología hindú, trad, por E. G. Schneider. Mundonuevo, Buenos Aires .. Essad, Bey. Mahoma: la historia de los árabes. Ed. Arábigo-Argentina.
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During a short period this revolution coincided with the story of just one country, Great Britain. It is in that biigrafia moment when Great Britain emerges as the first great industrial State-nation in the world, a fact that raises the threshold of power to almost unreachable levels mahooma the other States and that turns England into the great subordinating State of the international system: There is a moment in universal history in which Great Britain can be described as the only workshop in the world, its only mass importer and exporter, its only imperialistic power, almost its only foreign investor; and for that same reason its only naval force and the only country with its own world policy.
Having completed the Industrial Revolution before any other State, Great Britain automatically elevated the threshold of power. As a logical consequence, from that moment on all other States of the international system that might desire to maintain their respective autonomies were obliged to carry essaf their own industrial revolution.
Fssad not become subordinated, all the States in the international system had to quickly industrialize. During pr 18 th century and the beginning of the 19 th century France had been the main rival of England, as much in politics as in economy. Until the Industrial Revolution, French industry had been ahead of that of the English in the employment of complicated machinery and in the development of large factories.
France clearly emerged impoverished from the wars of Napoleon.
Nevertheless, it preserved its traditional supremacy in the silk industry, its possessed an industrial bourgeoisiewith a marvelous talent for production of small quantities of articles of high quality, good taste and sky high prices. Its coal stores were small. Without and effective State impulse that would promote the development of an important industry, without a pro-industrial economic policy, without a financial policy that would channel credit towards the foundational industries, France was barely able to reach the present threshold of power set by Great Britain at a level high enough so as to not become a subordinated State, but it was absolutely incapable of challenging the English worldwide hegemony.
Incredibly, the cause of this handicap was none other than neglect, on behalf of the French State, of that necessary State impulse to orient its policy and economy towards levels similar to those of Great Britain. From the different paths taken by the bourgeoisie and the French State in the orientation of its activities emerges the incapacity of arguing over world supremacy with Great Britain.
Observing Great Britain, a small part of the politically elite as much of the Piemonte reign as of the disunited Germany understood that England had raised the threshold of power and that only the States that were able to industrialize themselves —as deeply as England had achieved- would be able to maintain their autonomy under the new economic conditions created by the Industrial Revolution.
It turned out to be natural, therefore, to have confluence of interests between political men that were seeking for Italian unity on one hand and German unity on the other, with their respective national bourgeoisies the proto-industrial elitethat had come to the conclusion that only within a State of like dimensions to those of Great Britain could they invest their resources and later obtain good profits.
Equivocations about the Cause of the Industrial Revolution. To approach in a deep way the motives and circumstances due to which Great Britain rose to be the first State-nation to carry out the Industrial Revolution would exceed the limits of our work.
On this path of clearing up equivocations, we follow the great historian Eric Hobsbawn. The first serious of equivocations comes from the theories that try to explain the Industrial Revolution in terms of climate, geography, biological change in the population or other exogenous factors:. If, as it has been said, the stimulus for the revolution came from let us say from the exceptionally long period of good harvests that took place at the beginning of the 18 th century, then we would therefore have to explain why other similar periods before this date did not have similar consequences.
Germany possessed iron and coal in abundance but was divided, before the Napoleonic invasion, in more than three hundred disunited and anarchic mini-States.
Sweden possessed, unlike Germany, a railway political unity; it also had enormous reserves of iron, but lacked an adequate economic policy. Thus Hobsbawm well clarifies: Hobsbawm also upholds that one should also reject the explanations of the Industrial Revolution that refer it to historical accidents:.
The simple fact of the great discoveries of the 15 th and 16 th centuries do not explain the industrialization, nor the scientific revolution of the 16 th century. Neither can the Protestant Reform make itself responsible, be it directly or via a certain special capitalist spirit or other change in the economic attitude induced by Protestantism; nor either because it took place in England and not in France.
The Protestant Reform took place more than two centuries before the Industrial Revolution.
In no way did all the countries that converted to Protestantism later became pioneers of that revolution and —to use an easy example- the area of the Netherlands that remained Catholic Belgium industrialized before those that became Protestant Holland. But to know what he biogfafia to with this, one must first read it in its entirety and, second, one must place what it says within Weberian theory and methodology.
And as a footnote to this sentence he adds: Despite this and other sufficiently explicit warnings of mine, which I have always upheld without modifications, such a thesis has curiously been repeatedly attributed to me. For example, in there was a total of little more than two hundred kilometers of train tracks in Spain, Portugal, Scandinavia, Switzerland and all of the Balkan Peninsula.
Great Britain added a new and determining characteristic to its already consolidated State-nation condition, that of industrial State, and thus raising the threshold of power ney becoming, by it, the most powerful State in the international system. And what was the main lesson oor Great Britain now took upon itself to hide by propagating an ideology that prescribed as a prescription of success a path totally different than the one it herself took to achieve it?
This goes to say that it chose the interests of industry over those of mere trade.
The path that British history denoted consisted of creating a protected internal market so that the industry could grow at ease until becoming strong enough to be able to request free entrance into the markets of others. Economic policies —truly executed ones and not those being preached- were taken as examples to be followed. In Europe, Germany and Italy — imitating the historic path taken by England — will be the next States — after Great Britain and France — to become industrial State-nations.
During the second half of the 19 th century the German struggles as well as the Italian take place, to reach their respective national unities, the first condition for reaching the current threshold of power.
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To generate a great industrial State, Otto von Bismark will culminate the German unity that had been anticipated by Esssad, the customs unity between the German micro-States. In northern Italy, the Saboya monarchy and the Piemonte industrials and Lombardia generate the Italian unity to widen their markets and, thus, are able to break into the logic of the States that could be main characters in history. On the enormous Asian continent, just only State will save itself from falling under British subordination by rejecting the theories published by Great Britain and becoming, vertiginously, the first industrial State-nation of the Far East, thus reaching the current threshold of power: Thus it is worthy of clarifying that the second wave of globalization —as a process of increase in human relations and exchanges, commercial and capital, tending towards the unification of the totality of the inhabited and inhabitable world- just began to deepen around the mid th century, with the esxad of means of locomotion.
With the railroad, commerce —that before had barely bit coastal trading posts and the mouths of large rivers- penetrates into the heart of continents. With iron ships and steam sailing, freight is cheapen to such an extent that it becomes very profitable for European countries to import wheat, leather, copper or coffee in large quantities.
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They made the two new great social phenomenon of the era possible: From the angle of international policy it is necessary to have in mind that, as a fundamental political fact, England in the beginning will try to hinder or delay the industrialization of other nations, as well as obstructing to the maximum the generation of local railway technologies:. Great Britain banned exportation of machinery and the emigration of qualified workers in ; and though both bans were very often thwarted, they created serious obstacles for the expansion of machinery abroad.
From the dawn of the Industrial Revolution eesad strategic objective easad Great Britain consisted of imposing, on a worldwide level, the principles of free-trade in order for other States to not reach the threshold of power. There did not just exist a merely economic idea but also an important political effort embarked upon to maintain Great Britain as the first —and if possible the only- world power, as the first and only subordinating State.
Through those the contracting party committed to receive English manufactured goods freely and to freely export their raw materials to the English market. At the same time Great Britain granted them the same advantages. With respects to such treaties, Vivian Trias perceptively holds that:. Apparently in letter, in abstract theory, there was nothing more fair and equitable.
But how can the coarse and expensive manufacturing of lagging countries compete with the English industry? That free mutual importation agreement simply leads to the British industry devastating the incipient sprouts of local manufacturing of under-developed economies; it is what Baran calls industrial infanticide. What it leads to, as if by the hand, is the specialization of the lagging country towards monoculture, to the deformation of its economy, to its hypertrophying in the only sense of the production of basic materials for which its soil and sky are singularly apt… Politically, the process is complemented by a close alliance between the metropolitan bourgeoisie and the oligarchy of the dependent society.
It is during this period when Spanish America begins its fight for independence, breeding at the same time a civil war —masked or open, depending on the cases- between those that envisage the independence process should end in the political unity of Hispanic America and mayoma that, from port cities, allies of England, think that what is most convenient to their interests is that, once biogfafia independence wars are over, biiografia conform around polis oligarchy, a multiplicity of Hispanic States.
Differently, however, will the fate of Lusitanian America be that, through the monarchic formula and having the army as the backbone of the State, achieves containing the forces that bid on territorial fragmentation. In this way, Brazil saves its territorial unity and, therefore, its national unity. Nevertheless, in one thing will the fate of the two Americas be the same, the Lusitanian and the Hispanic, both will be incorporated into the international economy as providers of raw materials and importers of industrial products, without making any industrializing effort and missing, in that same way, the train of history for more than a century.
Upon choosing the project proposed by Adam Smith, many of the Latin American republics were able to modernize their economies and achieve a relative important progress. But the biorafia model contained within itself the germ of its own stagnation. Arnold Toynbee drew out, correctly, the consequences that the second wave of globalization born out of the Industrial Revolution had in the international arena of policy by holding that: Ergo, due to Great Britain and those nations that, ignoring the council of Adam Smith, they applied, just like England, a policy of strong State impulse into the process of industrialization.
Great Britain & the New Threshold of Power
During the second globalization, the paradigmatic example of a great power that was left lagging behind, underdeveloped and dominated for more than century, due to omitting the industrialization process, was the great agrarian empire of China.
Opposite massive China was a small island, Japan, deprived of all raw materials —the same ones China possessed in excess- and thanks to an accelerated plan of industrialization —stoked, as in all successful cases, by State impulse- it would become, from on and in the extremely brief historic lapse of fifty years, in an industrial power and would reach the current threshold of power, a condition which —worthy of pointing out once again- is indispensable to maintain national autonomy.
Precisely due to that Japan ended up becoming the only Asian country biografai was never submitted to European colonialism. The beginning of French industry — fundamentally specializing in the manufacturing of high quality and high priced articles — can be historically dated to the Thirty Year War, put to an end in by The Peace of Westphalia.
From a bkografia standpoint, France was the great conqueror of that war. However from an economic point of view, it emerged from the conflict in ruins. Luckily for France, a wise economic policy aided it in recovering astoundingly. With Jean Baptiste Colbert Exchequer and Secretary of the Navy during the reign of Luis the 14th the French State made its first great State impulse in order to reach a deep industrialization of the kingdom.
Furthermore Colbert — as a response to the Law of Navigation established by Oliver Cromwell in England — placed great restrictions on the entrance of foreign ships into French ports while at the same time promoted the naval industry for the construction mahpma barges, as much for merchant use as for war.
It was by intoo late to overcome the advantage obtained by Great Britain and Germany, when France decided to reduce its dependence on goods of imported capital, from Great Britain and Germany, through a serious State impulse. But only after the recuperation of Aliscia and Lorena was the French government able to reach its strategic objective of developing heavy industry.
Until that time England sold off its abundant production of wool mainly to Holland, where it was later processed. Through a skilled policy of fomentation, Elizabeth was able to attract the Dutch weaving technicians that had been expulsed by Felibe the 2 nd of the Netherlands to come to England. Technicians who, once installed in England, supported and protected by the State, began to develop the textile industry that grew to become one of the main pillars of the English economy.
Isabel developed the internal market for the nascent industry by establishing minimum wages, issuing different protective laws over peasants and providing work for the poor.
It is possible to affirm that England lived a first industrial revolution between andcharacterized by investments in new industries like mining, metallurgy, breweries, sugar biografai, soap manufacturing, alum, crystal and salt.
It arrived April 23 rd. The policy tending to ban the exportation of machinery and the emigration of qualified workers was a permanent policy of Great Britain from even before the Industrial Revolution. In the British Parliament ratified the prohibition of emigration of skilled workers and tried to apply the ban to exportation of machine models and blueprints and the machines themselves.
After the Industrial Revolution, these measures became more extensive and were applied with greater rigor and vigilance. Equivocations about the Cause of the Mahma Revolution To approach in a deep way the motives and circumstances due to which Great Britain rose to be the first State-nation to carry out the Industrial Revolution would exceed the limits of our work. The first serious of equivocations comes from the theories that try to explain the Industrial Revolution in terms of climate, geography, biological change in the population or other exogenous factors: Hobsbawm also upholds that one should also reject the explanations of the Industrial Revolution that refer it to historical accidents: From the angle of international policy it is necessary to have in mind that, as a fundamental political fact, England in the beginning will try to hinder or delay the industrialization of other nations, as well as obstructing to the maahoma the generation of local railway technologies: With respects to such treaties, Vivian Trias perceptively holds that: Libros I-V, Madrid, Ed.
Macmillan, Nueva York, Madrid, Ed Revista de Occidente, Vierteljahrshefte fur Zeitgeschichte, Jhg, 2H, abril The Structure an Operation of the Jananese Economy. Sydney, ed John Wiley, New York, ed Lippincott,