Abstract. The experiment was aimed to determine the effect of Palm Kernel Cake fermentation by Pleurotus ostreatus (BISF) in ration on the performance of. See All. Reviews. Bungkil Inti Sawit Deli has no reviews yet. Tell people what you think. See All. Photos. Image may contain: text. See All. Posts. Two experiments intended to evaluate the performance of birds offered diet containing 25% palm kernel cake (PKC). One hundred and twenty day old chick Red.

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Palm kernel meal, palm kernel cake, expeller palm kernel meal, solvent-extracted palm kernel meal [English]; bungkil inti sawit [Indonesian]; tourteau de palmiste [French]. Perrier, Elaeis madagascariensis Jum. This palm tree is cultivated for its oils rich in highly saturated vegetable fats: It has also numerous non-food applications, including as a feedstock for biodiesel.

Palm kernel oil, which is semi-solid at room temperature, is economically less important. The demand for palm oil, fueled by bungkli growth of the Chinese and Indian economies, has been growing rapidly since the s. The production of palm kernel oil, while less important 5.

The oil palm is an evergreen monoecious tree, 18 to 30 m tall Ecocrop, ; Ataga et al. Though the tree can live up to years, its productive life is about years as older trees are too tall and impractical to harvest Ecocrop, The tree has a stout trunk, up to 75 cm in diameter, a crown made of fronds leaves spirally arranged at the top, and an adventitious root system Rossin, ; Ataga et al. The compound leaves are up to 8 m long with leaflets irregularly inserted on the rachis Ataga et al.

Pemanfaatan Bungkil Inti Sawit Sebagai Media Pertumbuhan Cacing Sutra (Tubifex SP.)

Inflorescences are borne bungkjl the leaf axil. After pollination, female inflorescences sasit into large and heavy fruit bunches bearing about fruits Ecocrop, ; Ataga et al. A tree may bear between 2 bubgkil 6 bunches a year. The fruit is a fibrous, ovoid drupe, cm long and about 2 cm broad, usually orange when ripe.

The fruit has a thin epicarp, a fleshy and oily mesocarp and a hard endocarp that contains an oil-rich endosperm kernel Vaughan et al.

Fruit bunches can be harvested 3 to 4 years after planting and the largest amount of fresh sawkt bunches is obtained after 8 to 10 years Poonam Singh Nigam et al. The fruit bunches are cut off or knocked down carefully when the fruit is ripe Ecocrop, In the traditional oil extraction process, the fruits are boiled, pounded in a wooden mortar, and the pulp is soaked in water until the oil rises to the surface.

The oil is then skimmed off and boiled to remove the last traces of water Vaughan et al.

The fruits are detached from the bunch and conveyed to a digester where they are heated, stirred and screw-pressed to extract the crude palm oil, which is put in clarifying tanks to remove dirt bunkil moisture before decantation and drying Teoh Cheng Hai, The nuts remaining after the palm oil extraction process are separated from the press cake and cracked to release the kernels, which are crushed in a separate plant to obtain crude palm kernel oil Teoh Cheng Hai, Palm kernels can be mechanically sawitt or solvent extracted, a more efficient but more expensive process that is generally done in larger industrial units.

The kernels are broken into small pieces, passed through rollers that reduce them into flakes, which are then steam-cooked and screw-pressed mechanical extraction or treated with a solvent usually hexane. The resulting palm kernel oil is clarified in decanters Poku, Indonesia is the largest producer and exporter of palm oil and palm oil by-products.

Inthis country produced Several processes have been proposed to increase the nutritional value of palm kernel meal. The addition of enzymes has been shown to be beneficial in pig Ao et al. Fermentation has also been tested in poultry Mirnawati et bungkik. Oil palm is a high yielding crop, though productivity is variable, from 0. Palm kernel oil productivity is much lower and about 0. Oil palm can be included in integrated farming systems where it is grown with companion crops such as legumes and grass grazed by livestock.

In Malaysia, more than 60, cattle are raised in oil palm plantations Khusahry et al. The tremendous growth of oil palm production is a major cause of environmental concern and has become a matter of public debate since the s. In the past decades, millions of hectares of tropical rainforest in South-East Asia, which provides the highest biodiversity of any terrestrial ecosystem, have been converted to oil palm production. InMalaysia and Indonesia grew oil palm on 4 and 5 million ha respectively, sawt two-fold and seven-fold increase since FAO, This high rate of deforestation has resulted in the loss of habitat for a number of key species, such as the orang-utan Wakker, ; Wakker, Land clearing for oil palm cultivation used to be done by burning felled biomass, which resulted in large emissions of greenhouse gases.


A catastrophic forest bunfkil in Indonesia inwhich was partly blamed on plantation owners, caused massive air pollution in South-East Asia.

This led to a ban on burning in Asian countries with the adoption of zero-burning, which has resulted in shredding palm trunks and stacking them in the interrows Mohd Noor, ; Mohd Hashim et al.

An objection to zero-burning management is that unburned biomass promotes the breeding of diseases and pests such as the rhinoceros beetle Oryctes rhinoceros. Integrated pest management systems involving a mix of cultural, physical, chemical and biological control have been developed in order to decrease the use of chemicals Mohd Noor, ; Teoh Cheng Hai, ; Kamarudin et al.

Inyi soil is ini susceptible to erosion during the clearance period, which may turn into an acute problem in upland regions Wakker, In bungkip cases, a leguminous cover crop is established to limit erosion, but this requires the preventive use of weed killers Mohd Noor, When these dawit are drained for palm plantation, the increased aeration results in oxidation and in the release of carbon dioxide.

Large scale oil palm cultivation may require up to 25 different pesticides, including Paraquat, a common herbicide.

The use of Paraquat in palm oil production is controversial as this product is toxic to humans and could be dangerous for plantation workers it has been prohibited in the European Union since Wakker, Palm oil processing yields large quantities bubgkil solid and liquid wastes. The more fibrous wastes are generally used for energy production within the mill plant or may be valuable as mulch or as mushroom substrate Chavalparit et al. Palm kernel meal is recycled in animal feeding.

The most environmentally problematic palm oil waste is palm oil mill effluent: Most mills have outdoor basins in which the effluent is stored and partly detoxified by adding oxygen but these basins easily overflow during heavy rain or intensive production.

Some companies allow the liquid to flow directly into the rivers.

Palm kernel meal | Feedipedia

Because of its high Biological Oxygen Demand BODpalm oil mill effluent is highly polluting to waterways and bungkli significant negative effects on aquatic life downriver Wakker, Oil palm is sometimes used for rehabilitating degraded areas.

Its shading effect is lighter than that of other plantation crops such as rubber or cocoa and it is suitable for undergrowth that can be grazed by livestock Orwa et al.

Cattle in oil palm plantations participate in weed control: Raising livestock in oil palm iti is a subsidiary source of income Orwa et al.

Palm kernel meal is a common feed ingredient, particularly in ruminant feeding. For these reasons, its nutritive value is inferior to that of the main oil meals, notably soybean mealgroundnut meal and cottonseed meal.

Palm kernel meal is dry into gritty and is not readily accepted by ruminants and pigs. The following significant relationships between NDF, ADF and crude fibre content have been established the slopes are identical for palm kernel meal and copra meal but the intercepts are different as palm kernel is significantly richer in cell walls:. Palm kernel meal contains ppm of copper APOC, Sheep are very sensitive to copper and levels as low as 25 ppm in the diet can be toxic to them Schoenian, Supplementing diets with sodium molybdate may alleviate copper toxicity since Mo forms insoluble complexes with Cu and prevents copper absorption Schoenian, ; Akpan et al.

Zinc is another antagonist to copper absorption but zinc supplementation may result in high zinc concentration in blood, liver and kidneys. Phytase supplementation may be a complementary way of preventing copper toxicity as it enhances zinc availability in sheep Akpan et al. Palm kernel meal is mostly used to feed ruminants. In spite of a nutritional value lower than that of other meals, it remains a source of protein and energy and its cost may make it particularly attractive when compared to more expensive ingredients such as maize grain and soybean, and it can often partially replace them when economic conditions allow it.

Somewhat imprecise relationships between OM digestibility, NDF bunkgil ADF can be established by pooling together samples of palm kernel and copra meal the regression coefficients are not significantly different between the two products:. Compared with copra meal, corn distillers dried grains and corn gluten feedthe low energy value of some palm kernel meals could limit their inclusion in diets for high-performance ruminants Carvalho et al.


This problem is due to the presence of galactomannans that are not readily hydrolyzed by the enzymes in the cellulase preparation.

File:Bungkil inti sawit.jpg

Palm kernel meal is, after guar gum, the feed ingredient that is the richest in non-starch polysaccharides NSP and galactomannans. This fermentation pattern suggests that the effective rumen digestion of palm kernel meal is particularly sensitive to transit outflow rates. After the lag phase, cell wall degradation becomes important and palm kernel meal can be considered to be a source of highly digestible fibre, similar to copra meal, soybean hulls and maize bran Sauvant et al.

Moreover, the supplementation of low quality hay with palm kernel meal or copra meal improved the production of microbial protein in the rumen Marsetyo, Although palm kernel cake supplies both protein and energy, it is looked upon more as a source of protein. In Malaysia, for example, the use of palm kernel meal helps to reduce dairy production costs because it replaces more expensive imported feeds such as soybean meal or maize grain.

Due to its specific fatty acids profile, palm kernel meal fed at kg daily to dairy cattle tended to increase milk fat content and to produce a firm butter Witt, Palm kernel meal is widely used for feeding growing cattle and a ration of kg per day has been found satisfactory for adult animals. It is considered as a reasonably profitable feed for cattle, both for fattening and supplementary feeding.

However, based on chewing activities and rumen digestion indicators, ingredients such as tomato pomace, dried brewers’ grains and soybean hulls may be better sources of fibre than palm kernel meal in total mixed rations Chumpawadee et al.

The partial substitution of maize grain and soybean meal with palm kernel meal was found satisfactory in sheep fed ammoniated elephant grass silage Pennisetum purpureum Silva et al. Supplementation with zinc and phytase prevented chronic copper toxicity in West African Dwarf sheep fed palm kernel meal Akpan et al. Palm kernel meal as the sole component of the supplement was an adequate protein source for West African Dwarf goats Aina et al.

The performance of West African Dwarf goats fed wilted Guinea grass Megathyrsus maximus and palm kernel meal was better than that of goats supplemented with brewer’s grains, similar to the performance of goats fed cottonseed meal and lower than that of goats supplemented with soybean meal Arigbede et al.

Palm kernel meal supplies both crude protein and energy but is generally considered to be an energy source for pigs Boateng et al. This energy value can be improved by the application of an enzyme complex to the diet that facilitates the breakdown of non-starch polysaccharides Ao et al.

The digestibility of most amino acids is about 20 to 30 percentage points lower than for the maize grain: Palm kernel meal is not very palatable to pigs: The inclusion of palm kernel meal in pig diets tends to decrease growth performance, which can be attributed to the high non-starch polysaccharides content, to the low palatability of the meal and to its low amino acids and energy digestibilities Kim et al.

Adding an enzyme complex can counteract the negative effect of palm kernel meal on growth performance Kim et al. For weaning piglets and lactating sows, in which energy intake is the main limiting factor for optimal performance, the inclusion of palm kernel meal is not recommended because of its low palatability and its high dietary fibre content. Although palm kernel meal has a low protein content compared with other oil meals, it can be valuable in poultry nutrition because of its availability and low price.

While its composition is somewhat similar to that of copra meal, its higher bulk density and lower water holding capacity tend to increase feed intake Sundu et al.

File:Bungkil inti – Wikimedia Commons

There are no antinutritional factors affecting poultry in palm kernel meal and no palatability problems. It is a quite variable product and its energy value in poultry depends greatly on the fat content and on the presence of kernel shells pericarpwhich increase the amount of fibre and lignin Jackson et al. Feed intake in diets containing palm kernel meal was generally higher than for a control diet, resulting in a less efficient feed conversion ratio Ezieshi et al.