Put test bomb to water bath in °F temperature during 2 hours. Compare copper plat of the test result with ASTM standard colour. ➢ Terner Diagram Making. interpret, pseudo ternary phase diagram is often constructed to find the different zones including microemulsion zone, in which each corner of. View Lab Report – BUNDELAN from MATH AND S A33 at State A. Title of Experiment Three Component System Diagram Phase of Ternary System JURNAL EXPERIMANT KOEFISIEN ; State University of.
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STM merupakan mikroskop yang mampu menghasilkan gambar dalam skala atomik sehingga mampu melihat atom dan molekul. Pada artikel ini dibahas secara singkat bagaimana pembakaran terjadi pada senyawa organik terutama polimer. Korosi celah disebabkan oleh adanya air yang terjebak pada celah sempit antar sambungan atau retakan. Saat ini nanomaterial karbon seperti CNT dan grafen banyak menarik perhatian karena sifatnya yang unik. Go to Blogger edit html and find these sentences.
Review Jurnal 1_Mardiansyah Pratama(1406533094), Triana Yusman(1406533081)
Now replace these sentences with your own descriptions. The mechanical properties of materials depend strongly upon microstructure and the development of microstructure of an alloy is related to the characteristics of its phase diagram.
Therefore, the understanding of phase diagrams for alloy systems is very important. Phase diagram is very useful to represent the most stable relationships between phases in alloy systems. In addition, phase diagrams provide valuable information about melting, casting, crystallization, and other phenomena.
Before interpret and utilize phase diagram, it is necessary to understand component, system and phase. For example, in a copper—zinc brass, the components are Cu and Zn. System may refer to a specific body of material under consideration e.
Or it may relate to the series of possible alloys consisting of the same components, but without regard to alloy composition e. Phase may be defined as a homogeneous portion of a system that has uniform physical and chemical characteristics. Every pure material is considered to be a phase; so also is every solid, liquid, and gaseous solution. Unary System Perhaps the simplest and easiest type of phase diagram to understand is that for a one-component system.
In a one-component system, or unary system, however, the composition does not vary, but must always be unity. Therefore there are only two variables which can vary: Every possible combination of temperature and pressure can be readily represented by points on a two-dimensional diagram. Three phases solid- liquid, and vapor-phase are found on this type of phase diagram. Binary phase diagrams represent the relationships between temperature and the compositions of phases at equilibrium at constant external pressure.
Areas, or phase regions, are defined on these temperature-versus-composition plots within which either one or two phases exist. For an alloy of specified composition and at a known temperature, the phases present, their compositions, and relative amounts under equilibrium conditions may be determined.
Binary Systems without Solid Solution Consider a system of two components, A and B, which are completely soluble in one another in the liquid state, but completely insoluble in one another in the solid state.
The melting point of a liquid is normally depressed if the liquid contains some other substance in solution. Solid solution means that the solute component enters and becomes a part of the crystalline solvent, without altering its basic structure.
Solid solutions with complete solid solubility, i. For a metallic binary solution to exhibit a complete solid solubility, for instance, both metals must have the same type of crystal structure, nearly identical atomic radii and electronegativities, and similar valences because it must be possible to replace all the atoms of the initial solvent with solute atoms without causing a change in crystal structure.
The copper—nickel system displays this behavior. The copper—nickel system is termed isomorphous because of this complete liquid and solid solubility of the two components.
The phase diagram shapes are as shown below: The liquid L is a homogeneous liquid solution composed of both A and B.
At temperatures below about A and B are mutually soluble in each other in the solid state for all compositions. Binary Systems with Partial Solid Solubility Binary Eutectic Diatram In many cases, atom size, crystal structure or other factors restrict the ease with which solute atoms can be dissolved in the solvent in the solid state.
Thus it is much more common to find that solids are partly soluble in one another rather than be either completely soluble or completely insoluble. The copper—silver system displays this behavior.
Module I – Thermodynamics and Phase | Ni Ketut Sari –
The following is a binary system which shows partial solid solubility: There are also three two-phase regions found for the system: Terber science and engineering: Chemical Thermodynamics for Metals And Materials. Introduction Hydroxyapatite HA is a member of the apatite group of ceramics. It was called such for its diversity of form and color. Source There are two sources of apatite: Bone and teeth contain a HA-like mineral component that supports the majority of load in vivo.
Deorganized bone and some sea corals porites are used to make implants. Properties The bio chemical and mechanical properties of HA are similar to those of bone and teeth. Their molecular structures are also similar, although the exact nature of the composite, the minerals and proteins, and their interactions are not fully understood.
Mechanical Properties There is a wide variation in the reported mechanical properties of HA. Jarcho2 reported that fully densified teener specimens of HA synthesized by themhad average compressive and tensile strengths of and MPa, respectively. Chemical Properties Hydroxyapatite is considered bioactive, indicating that the ceramic may undergo ionization in vivo and that the rate of dissolution may depend on many factors — includeing degree of crystallinity, ternsr size, processing condition temperature,pressure, and partial water pressureand porosity.
Hydroxyapatite is soluble in anacidic solution while insoluble in an alkaline one and slightly soluble in distilled water. The solubility of sintered HA is very low.
The rate of solubility is 0. Hydroxyapatite reacts actively with proteins, lipids, and otherinorganic and organic species. HA also have osteoconductive properties — an ability to serve as a scaffold or template to guide the newly forming bone along its surfaces. HA as abrasive HA or apatitic abrasive biphasic calcium phosphate has gained ternet as the abrasive of choice for orthopedic and dental implant.
Implant surface gritblasted with HA or apatitic abrasive was shown to be cleaner free of inclusions compared with alumina  and appear to promote higher bone contact. Bone graft materials and scaffolds Dental applications of HA materials include: Implant coatings In spite of the many good qualities of HA and related calcium phosphates e.
B -TCP such as bioactivity and osteoconductivity, they cannot be used in load-bearing areas because of their low fracture strength. On the other hand, metal implants, primarily titanium Ti or Ti alloy, are not bioactive and therefore do not bond directly to bone.
Drug delivery and other applications HA ceramic is used as gene carrier or transfection agentsfor drug delivery such as delivery of anticancer drugs or bisphosphonate, or as scaffolds for bone regeneration by tissue engineering.
Tricalcium Phosphate TCP 2. This phenomenon may be caused by processing variables sintering time and temperature. Mechanical properties BCP ceramic prepared from a single calcium-deficient apatite phase was reported to exhibit higher compressive strength 2—12 MPa compared with BCP ceramic prepared by mixing two unsintered calcium phosphate preparations 2 MPa: The initial mechanical property is not the best criterion for efficacy of bone ingrowth. Bioactivity and osteogenic properties Bioceramics calcium phosphates, bioactive glass do not usually have osteoinductive property.
However, several reports indicated osteoinductive properties of some calcium phosphate bioceramics such as those reported for coralline HA derived from coral or observed in some studies using BCP. Applications in dentistry Dental applications of BCP include prevention of bone loss ternet tooth extraction, repair of periodontal defects and sinus lift augmentation. Applications in orthopedics Micromacroporous biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics are largely used in orthopedics and effi cacy has been demonstrated in numerous preclinical and clinical studies, for example using specific shaped blocks custom-designed dagram spine arthrodesis cage insert and wedges for tibial valgization osteotomy of tenrer.
Introduction Aluminium oxide Al2O3more commonly known as alumina, is the most widely used oxide ceramic material. Bauxite hydrated aluminum oxide and native corundum aluminum oxide mineral are the main sources of high-purity alumina. As a raw material, Al2O3 powder is produced in large quantities from the mineral bauxite, by the Bayer process. Bayer process, which yields D-alumina.
Physical properties Additives or impurities determine the colour of alumina, in addition to the sintering atmosphere, and by the interaction with ionising radiation. When chromium oxide Cr2O3 is added, it reacts with Al2O3 to form a solid solution. The amount of chromium oxide added will determine whether the colour of alumina changes to pink or ruby.
When medical-grade alumina is sintered in air together with the addition of magnesia, it will appear as ivory. Alumina turns white when it is sintered in reducing atmosphere or if it contains traces of silica. Mechanical properties Because of their strong bonding, alumina ceramics have very high melting or, more appropriately, dissociation temperatures, hence the production of alumina ceramics can only be achieved with high-temperature sintering.
During the sintering process, powders are heated usually to two-thirds of their melting temperature.
As shown earlier, during this densification particles bond together to form necks between the particles, which subsequently reduce the surface area and cause the powder to consolidate. Applications High-purity alumina bioceramics have been developed as an alternative to surgical metal alloys for total hip jurnnal and tooth implants. Their high hardness, low friction coefficient and the excellent corrosion resistance of alumina offer a very low wear rate at the articulating surfaces in orthopaedic applications.
Alumina has the ability to be polished to a high surface finish. Other applications for alumina in orthopaedic and maxillofacial applications include porous coatings for femoral stems, alumina spacers employed specifically in revision surgery Huckstep and Sherry,knee prostheses see Fig. Introduction Zirconium oxides zirconia have been used for the purpose of fabricating implants. Some of their mechanical properties are as good or better than those of alumina ceramics.
They are highly biocompatible, like other ceramics, and can be made into such large implants as the femoral head of a hip joint replacement. Some of their drawbacks include the fact that they exhibit high density, low hardness, and iurnal transformations under stress in aqueous conditions, thus degrading their mechanical properties.
Source Zircon ZrSiO4 is the most commercially important zirconium mineral and is found mostly in the mineral baddeleyite. Zircon is a gold-colored silicate of zirconium, a mineral found in igneous and sedimentary rock and occurring in tetragonal crystals colored of many colors.
The jurnzl varieties are usually deposited in beach sand, and are used as gems. Zircon is first chlorinated to form ZrCl4 in a fluidized bed reactor in the presence of petroleum coke. A second chlorination is required for highquality zirconium. Zirconium is precipitated with either hydroxides or sulfates, and then calcined to its oxide. The cubic structure of zirconia belongs to the group of fluorite CaF2 structures. Mechanical properties The strength of the partially stabilized zirconia with yttrium oxide Y—TZP showed the highest flexural strength and fracture toughness.